Rapid Upper Limb Assessment (RULA) is a survey method developed for use in ergonomic investigations of workplaces where work-related upper limb disorders are reported. RULA is a screening tool that assesses biomechanical and postural loading on the whole body with particular attention to the neck, trunk, and upper limbs. Reliability studies have been conducted using RULA on groups of VDU users and sewing machine operators. A RULA assessment requires little time to complete and the scoring generates an action list that indicated the level of intervention required to reduce the risks of injury due to physical loading on the operator. RULA is intended to be used as part of a broader ergonomic study.

ISO 11226:2000

The international standard for 'Evaluation of static working postures' establishes ergonomic recommendations for different work tasks. This standard provides information to those involved in the design, or redesign, of work, jobs, and products who are familiar with the basic concepts of ergonomics in general, and working postures in particular. It specifies recommended limits for static working postures without any or only with minimal external force exertion while taking into account body angles and time aspects. It is designed to provide guidance on the assessment of several task variables, allowing the health risks for the working population to be evaluated. It applies to the adult working population. The recommendations will give reasonable protection for nearly all healthy adults. The recommendations concerning health risks and protection are mainly based on experimental studies regarding the musculoskeletal load, discomfort/pain, and endurance/fatigue related to static working postures.

EN 1005-4

EN 1005-4+A1 Safety of machinery - Human physical performance - Part 4: Evaluation of working postures and movements in relation to machinery - This European Standard presents guidance when designing machinery or its component parts in assessing and affecting health risks due only to machine-related postures and movements, i.e. during assembly, installation, operation, adjustment, maintenance, cleaning, repair, transport, and dismantlement. This European Standard specifies requirements for postures and movements without any or with only minimal external force exertion. The requirements are intended to reduce the health risks for nearly all healthy adults. This European Standard is not applicable to the machinery, which is manufactured before the date of publication of this European Standard by CEN.


OWAS identifies the most common work postures for the back  (4 postures), arms (3 postures), and legs (7 postures), and the weight of the load handled (3 categories). Whole-body posture is described by these body parts with a four-digit code. These 252 postures have been classified into four action categories indicating the need for ergonomic changes. The observations are made as "snapshots" and sampling has usually been with constant time intervals.OWAS was developed in Finland in a steel industry company, Ovako Oy, in 1973 to describe the workload in the overhauling of iron smelting ovens (Karhu 1977). A portable computer system for coding and analysis of OWAS has been developed (Kivi 1991).


The NASA-OBI method examines static physical forces affecting the skeleton and muscle system. It depicts health-damaging loads with a diagram. It is also possible to provide support for the arms or legs, which reduces the load in the given body parts of the examined subject. Each moment of the examined workflow is evaluated on a scale of 1 to 4. Score 1 if no change is required, and score 4 whenever an immediate change is required.


The analysis allows you to measure the length of a journey by a worker, within a given time interval, whose route can be displayed using small spheres in the model space. The time required for the measurement can be entered manually or automatically based on the timeline. The density of spheres used for the display can be set in the analysis panel.


Examination of availability provides essential information for the analysis, and thus for the re-design process. The selected human model can display the reach of the right, left, or both arms. The location of objects and devices will be evaluated based on the displayed access range.
All of the built-in analyses can be saved as clear. The report highlights the positions where ergonomic measures have to be taken to improve the quality of the workplace.